Agriculture has existed in India since the Neolithic era. India is second in the world for agricultural output. According to the 2018 Indian Economic Survey, agriculture employed more than 50% of the labour force and made up 17–18% of the GDP.
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In 2016, 17.5% of the GDP (gross domestic product) was accounted for by agriculture and related industries like animal husbandry, forestry, and fisheries. By 2020, these industries would employ around 41.49% of the workforce. In terms of net cropped area, India leads the world, followed by the US and China. With India's overall economic growth, agriculture's economic contribution to GDP is continuously shrinking. Nevertheless, agriculture is India's largest economic sector by population and contributes significantly to the country's overall socioeconomic structure.

In the period from March to June 2020, the overall export of agricultural products was $3.50 billion. India was the seventh-largest agricultural exporter in the world and the sixth-largest net exporter in 2013 with exports of $38 billion. The majority of its agricultural exports go to underdeveloped and developing countries. More than 120 countries receive Indian agricultural, horticultural, and processed food exports, with Japan, Southeast Asia, SAARC nations, the European Union, and the United States receiving the majority of these exports.


Export of agricultural commodities has helped producers to take advantage of wider international market which, in turn, has incentivized their domestic production. Crops exported in large quantities viz. rice, sugar, and spices have witnessed significant increase in area coverage and growth rate of production. India has emerged as a significant Agri-exporter in crops like rice, spices, cotton, oil meal cake, castor oil, coffee, cashew, tea, fresh vegetables and sugar. As compared to previous year (2020-21), the Agri and Allied exports in the year 2021-22 increased by 20.79% to Rs. 3, 74,611.64 cores. The increase in Agri and Allied exports during 2020-21was primarily on account of increased exports of commodities like Wheat (279.71%), Dairy Products (98.40%), Guergam Meal (71.41%), Sugar (66.17%), Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (64.84%), Other Cereals (56.00%), Cotton Raw Include. waste (50.39%), Milled Products (48.54%), Coffee (42.59%), Misc. Processed Items (36.11%) and Pulses(36.66%), which witnessed high growth in the year 2021-22 as compared to previous same period.

India’s top 10 agriculture import by Country given in the Table
agricultural import


As compared to previous year (2020-21), the Agri and allied imports in the year 2021-22 increased by 50.56%to Rs239189.50 Crore. Increase in value of Agri and Allied imports during 2020-21were primarily on account of increase in imports of Vegetables Oil (72.34%), Fresh Fruits (16.35%), Pulses (39.29%), Spices (20.00%), Cashew (24.66%), Natural Rubber (66.73%), Oil Meals (346.33%), Other Oil Seeds (98.94%), and Cotton Raw Include. Waste (45.72%), Misc. Processed Items (50.15%), Cocoa Products (34.27%), Cereal Preparations (26.04%), Coffee (17.07%), Processed Fruit and Juices (50.51%), Jute Raw (150.66%), etc.

Similarly, the total merchandise imports increased more significantly, therefore the share of Agri and Allied imports has decreased from 5.45% in 2020-21 to 5.23% in 2021-22.
India’s top 10 agriculture import by Country given in the Table
agricultural export