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COVER PAGE STORY- Dr. Kallam Anji Reddy

Dr. Reddy was an Indian entrepreneur in the pharmaceutical industry, and was also the founder-chairman of Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, established in the year 1984 and Chairman of Dr. Reddy's Foundation (DRF), which carries out corporate social responsibilities on behalf of the group. This Foundation was established in the year 1996.


Early Life and Career

Dr. Reddy graduated from Annapurna Old High School in Mandapeta, Andhra Pradesh and earned his Bachelor's in Science degree from A.C. College, Guntur in the year 1958. He then earned his B.Sc. (Tech) degree in Pharmaceuticals and Fine Chemicals from the University Department of Chemical Technology of University of Mumbai, which is now called the University of Chemical Technology, Mumbai. He then got his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the National Chemical Laboratory, Pune in 1969.

Dr. Reddy then went on to found one of the most sought-after pharmaceutical companies in India, named 'Dr. Reddy's Laboratories' in the year 1984. Dr. Reddy's Laboratories is a multinational pharma company which is located in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Dr. Reddy's deals with the manufacturing and marketing of a wide range of pharma products in India and abroad as well. The organisation has over 190 medications, 90 active pharma ingredients (APIs) for manufacturing drugs, diagnostic kits, critical care and biotechnology products.

Dr. Reddy's was initially a supplier to Indian drug manufacturers, but soon it also started exporting its products to less-regulated markets. These markets possessed the advantages of saving time and money to be spent on setting up manufacturing products. By 2007, the company had 7 FDA-approved medical plants that manufactured active pharma ingredients in India and 7 FDA-inspected and certified plants that make patient-ready medicines. Five of these plants are in India and the remaining two are in the UK.

By 2014, Dr. Reddy's Laboratories was ranked as one of the most trusted brands of India according to the Brand Trust Report 2014, which is a study conducted by the Trust Research Advisory, a brand analytics company.


International expansion

The company's first international move took it to Russia in 1992. There, Dr. Reddy's formed a joint venture with the country's biggest pharmaceuticals producer, Biomed. They pulled out in 1995 amid accusations of scandal; involving "a significant material loss due to the activities of Moscow's branch of Reddy's Labs with the help of Biomed's chief executive". Reddy's sold the joint venture to the Kremlin-friendly Sistema group. In 1993, Reddy's entered into a joint venture in the Middle East and created two formulation units there and in Russia. Reddy's exported bulk drugs to these formulation units, which then converted them into finished products. In 1994, Reddy's started targeting the US generic market by building state of art manufacturing facility.


Expansion and acquisition

By 1997, Reddy's made the transition from being an API and bulk drug supplier to regulated markets like the US and the UK, and a branded formulations supplier in unregulated markets like India and Russia, into producing generics, by filing an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) in the USA. The same year, Reddy's outlicensed a molecule for clinical trials to Novo Nordisk, a Danish pharmaceutical company.

It strengthened its Indian manufacturing operations by acquiring American Remedies Ltd. in 1999. This acquisition made Reddy's the third largest pharmaceutical company in India, after Ranbaxy and Glaxo (I) Ltd., with a full spectrum of pharmaceutical products, which included bulk drugs, intermediates, finished dosages, chemical synthesis, diagnostics and biotechnology.

Reddy's also started exploiting Para 4 filing as a strategy in bringing new drugs to the market at a faster pace. In 1999 it submitted a Para 4 application for omeprazole, the drug that had been the cornerstone of its success in India. In December 2000, Reddy's had undertaken its first commercial launch of a generic product in the US, and its first product with market exclusivity was launched there in August 2001. The same year, it also became the first non-Japanese pharmaceutical company from the Asia-Pacific region to obtain a New York Stock Exchange listing, groundbreaking achievements for the Indian pharmaceutical industry.

In 2001 Reddy's became the first Indian company to launch the generic drug, fluoxetine (a generic version of Eli Lilly and Company's Prozac) with 180-day market exclusivity in the USA. Prozac had sales in excess of $1 billion per year in the late 1990s. Barr Laboratories of the U.S. obtained exclusivity for all of the approved dosage forms (10 mg, 20 mg) except one (40 mg), which was obtained by Reddy's. Lilly had numerous other patents surrounding the drug compound and had already enjoyed a long period of patent protection. The case to allow generic sales was heard twice by the Federal Circuit Court, and Reddy's won both hearings. Reddy's generated nearly $70 million in revenue during the initial six-month exclusivity period. With such high returns at stake, Reddy's was gambling on the success of the litigation; failure to win the case could have cost them millions of dollars, depending on the length of the trial.

The fluoxetine marketing success was followed by the American launch of Reddy's house-branded ibuprofen tablets in 400, 600 and 800 mg strengths, in January 2003. Direct marketing under the Reddy's brand name represented a significant step in the company's efforts to build a strong and sustainable US generic business. It was the first step in building Reddy's fully-fledged distribution network in the US market.

In 2015, Dr. Reddy's Laboratories bought the established brands of Belgian drugmaker UCB SA in South Asia for 8 billion rupees ($128.38 million). Dr. Reddy's Laboratories also signed a licensing pact with XenoPort for their experimental treatment to treat plaque psoriasis. As per the agreement, Dr. Reddy's will be granted exclusive US rights to develop and commercialize XP23829 for all indications for an upfront payment of $47.5 million.


Charity and Philanthropy

Dr. Kallam established the Dr. Reddy's Foundation in the year 1996 and also served as the Chairman of the foundation. This Foundation acts as the CSR arm of Dr. Reddy's Laboratories with the aim “to enhance the dignity and well-being of socially and economically vulnerable people.” The Foundation “develops and tests innovative solutions to address complex social problems and leverage partnerships to scale up impact.” Dr. Reddy's Foundation works with children, women, youth and households across as many as 20 states in India. One of the main aims of the Foundation is to educate and develop the skills of young people and give them a chance to create their own livelihoods. The Foundation has its own school named the Livelihood Advancement Business School, also known as LABS. This was an innovative program that trained close to 4 lakh aspirants across 20 states.


COVER PAGE STORY- Kenneth Frazier

Kenneth Carleton Frazier is an American business executive. He is the chairman and CEO of the pharmaceutical company Merck & Co. (known as MSD outside of North America). After joining Merck & Co. as general counsel, he directed the company's defense against litigation over the anti-inflammatory drug Vioxx. Frazier is the first African American man to lead a major pharmaceutical company (part of the Fortune 500 companies). He was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 2018.Frazier was included in Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People of 2018.


Early Life and Education

After earning his B.A. from Penn State, Frazier enrolled at Harvard Law School and graduated in 1978 with a J.D. After graduating from Harvard, Frazier began his law career with Drinker Biddle & Reath in Philadelphia. In 1991, Esther F. Lardent, head of the Death Penalty Representation Project, asked Frazier to defend death-row inmate James Willie "Bo" Cochran. Cochran had been arrested and accused of murdering an assistant manager at a Birmingham grocery store in 1976. Frazier, then a partner at Drinker Biddle, and two colleagues took the case.

In 1995, after 19 years on death row, the United States Courts of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit overturned Cochran's conviction. In 1997, Cochran was retried and found not guilty. Frazier continued to represent him after leaving Drinker Biddle. During Frazier's law career, he also took four summer sabbaticals to teach trial advoKenneth Frazier was born on December 17, 1954, in North Philadelphia.[4] His father, Otis, was a janitor. Frazier has said Thurgood Marshall was one of his heroes growing up. Frazier's mother died when he was twelve years old. He attended Julia R. Masterman School and Northeast High School (Philadelphia). After graduating at age 16, he entered Pennsylvania State University. To make extra money in college, he raised tadpoles and newts and sold them to local stores.After earning his B.A. from Penn State, Frazier enrolled at Harvard Law School and graduated in 1978 with a J.D.

After graduating from Harvard, Frazier began his law career with Drinker Biddle & Reath in Philadelphia. In 1991, Esther F. Lardent, head of the Death Penalty Representation Project, asked Frazier to defend death-row inmate James Willie "Bo" Cochran. Cochran had been arrested and accused of murdering an assistant manager at a Birmingham grocery store in 1976. Frazier, then a partner at Drinker Biddle, and two colleagues took the case.

In 1995, after 19 years on death row, the United States Courts of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit overturned Cochran's conviction. In 1997, Cochran was retried and found not guilty. Frazier continued to represent him after leaving Drinker Biddle. During Frazier's law career, he also took four summer sabbaticals to teach trial advocacy in South Africa.